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印尼发现世界上已知最古老的洞穴壁画
发布人:金子      信息来源:中国美容整形网      发布日期:2021-01-15 10:32:34

  Archaeologists have discovered the world’s oldest known cave painting: a life-sized (艺术作品)与真人[实物]一样大的 picture of a wild pig that was made at least 45,500 years ago in Indonesia.

  考古学家发现了世界上已知最古老的洞穴壁画:一幅至少在45,500年前的印度尼西亚绘制的真人大小的野猪画像。

  The finding, described in the journal Science Advances on Wednesday, provides the earliest evidence of human settlement of the region.

  周三发表在《科学进展》(Science Advances)杂志上的这项发现,提供了该地区有人类定居的最早证据。

  Co-author Maxime Aubert, of Australia’s Griffith University, told AFP it was found on the island of Sulawesi in 2017 by doctoral student 博士生 Basran Burhan, as part of surveys the team was carrying out with Indonesian authorities.

  研究报告的合著者、澳大利亚格里菲斯大学的马克西姆·奥伯特告诉法新社,2017年博士生巴斯兰·布尔汉在苏拉威西岛发现了这只鲨鱼,这是研究小组与印尼当局进行的调查的一部分。

  The Leang Tedongnge cave is located in a remote valley enclosed 围绕 by sheer limestone cliffs 石灰岩悬崖, about an hour’s walk from the nearest road.

  Leang tedonggge洞位于一个偏远的山谷,四周都是陡峭的石灰岩悬崖,距离最近的公路步行约一小时。

  It is only accessible 容易到达的 during the dry season because of flooding during the wet season – and members of the isolated 孤立的;分离的;绝缘的;单独的 Bugis community told the team it had never before been seen by westerners.

  由于雨季洪水泛滥,只有在旱季才能进入。与世隔绝的Bugis人告诉探险队,西方人以前从未见过这个地方。

  Measuring 136cm by 54cm (53in by 21in), the Sulawesi warty pig was painted using dark red ochre 赭色 pigment and has a short crest of upright hair, as well as a pair of horn-like facial warts 疣 characteristic of adult males of the species.

  这只长着136厘米长54厘米(53英寸长21英寸)的苏拉威西疣猪被涂上了深红色赭色颜料,长有直立的短毛冠,以及一对角状的面部疣,这是该物种成年雄性的特征。

  There are two hand prints above the pig’s hindquarters, and it appears to be facing two other pigs that are only partially preserved, as part of a narrative scene.

  这只猪的后腿上方有两个手印,它似乎正面对着另外两只只被部分保存下来的猪,这是叙事场景的一部分。

  “The pig appears to be observing a fight or social interaction between two other warty pigs 疣猪,” said co-author Adam Brumm.

  研究报告的撰写者之一亚当·布鲁姆说:“这只猪似乎是在观察另外两只长有疣的猪之间的争斗或社会交往。”

  Humans have hunted Sulawesi warty pigs for tens of thousands of years, and they are a key feature of the region’s prehistoric artwork, particularly during the ice age.

  人类捕杀苏拉威西岛疣猪已有数万年的历史,它们是该地区史前艺术作品的重要特征,尤其是在冰河时期。

  Aubert, a dating specialist 年代测定专家, identified a calcite deposit 方解石沉积层 that had formed on top of the painting, then used uranium-series isotope dating to confidently say the deposit 沉积层 was 45,500 years old.

  奥伯特是一位年代测定专家,他确定了这幅画上方形成的方解石矿床,然后使用铀系列同位素年代测定法,自信地说该矿床有4.55万年的历史。

  同位素地质年代学(isotope chronology)又称同位素年代学,是同位素地质学分支之一。利用自然界放射性衰变规律研究测定各种地质体的形成时代的同位素记时方法。

  This makes the painting at least that age, “but it could be much older because the dating that we’re using only dates the calcite on top of it”, he explained.

  这使得这幅画至少有那个年代,“但它可能更古老,因为我们只用了这幅壁画上方沉积层的年代来定义这幅画的年代,”他解释说。

  “The people who made it were fully modern, they were just like us, they had all of the capacity and the tools to do any painting that they liked,” he added.

  “制作这幅画的人完全是现代的,他们和我们一样,有能力和工具来画任何他们喜欢的画,”他补充说。

  The previously oldest dated rock art painting was found by the same team in Sulawesi. It depicted a group of part-human, part-animal figures 半人半兽的人物  hunting mammals, and was found to be at least 43,900 years old.

  此前最古老的岩石绘画是由同一团队在苏拉威西岛发现的。它描绘了一群半人半兽的人物狩猎哺乳动物,被发现至少有43,900年的历史。

  Cave paintings such as these also help fill in gaps about our understanding of early human migrations.

  像这样的洞穴壁画也有助于填补我们对早期人类迁徙的理解空白。

  It is known that people reached Australia 65,000 years ago, but they would probably have had to cross the islands of Indonesia, known as “Wallacea”.

  众所周知,人类是在65000年前到达澳大利亚的,但他们可能必须穿过印度尼西亚群岛,也就是人们所说的“Wallacea”。

  This site now represents the oldest evidence of humans in Wallacea, but it is hoped further research will help show people were in the region much earlier, which would resolve the Australia settlement puzzle.

  这个地点现在代表了最古老的Wallacea人类存在的证据,但人们希望进一步的研究将有助于证明人类在更早的时候就出现在该地区,这将解开澳大利亚定居之谜。

  The team believes the artwork was made by Homo sapiens 智人(现代人的学名), as opposed to now extinct human species like Denisovans, but cannot say this for certain.

  研究小组认为,艺术品是由智人创作的,而不是现在已经灭绝的丹尼索瓦人,但不能确定。

  To make handprints 手印, the artists would have had to place their hands on a surface then spit pigment 颜料 over it, and the team are hoping to try to extract DNA samples from residual saliva.

  为了制作手印,艺术家们必须将他们的手放在一个表面上,然后将颜料喷在上面,该团队希望尝试从残留的唾液中提取DNA样本。

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